Global burden of bacterial antimicrobial resistance in 2019: a systematic analysis (2022)
The authors of this article present the first global estimates of the burden of bacterial AMR covering an extensive set of pathogens and pathogen–drug combinations using consistent methods for both deaths attributable to AMR and deaths associated with AMR from 204 countries.
Key points from the article:
- Bacterial AMR occurs when changes in bacteria cause the drugs used to treat infections to become less effective.
- The spread of AMR could make many bacterial pathogens much more lethal in the future than they are today.
- AMR is a leading cause of death around the world, with the highest burdens in low-resource settings.
- There were an estimated 4.95 million deaths associated with bacterial AMR in 2019, with a further 1.27 million deaths attributable to bacterial AMR.
- Lower respiratory tract infections associated with AMR accounted for more than 1.5 million deaths.
- The six leading pathogens for deaths associated with resistance were Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
- Meticillin-resistant S aureus (MRSA) caused more than 100,000 deaths in 2019
Intervention strategies for addressing the challenge of bacterial AMR are identified as:
- The principles of infection prevention and control are essential in preventing infections and the cornerstone in combating the spread of AMR.
- The prevention of infections through vaccinations is paramount for reducing the need for antibiotics.
- Reduction in the use of antibiotics unrelated to treating human disease such as farming, is needed to reduce AMR risk.
- Reduction in the use of antibiotics when they are not necessary such as treating viral infections with support that allows clinicians to diagnose infection accurately and rapidly.
- Further investment for the development of new antibiotics.
To access the full article, click here